8 see the problem: where is the limit of your career in?

8 see the problem: where is the limit of your career in?      Author Peter Drucker translated Chinese version of “Business Review”, “text” this day and age we live in is full of unprecedented opportunities: If you are ambitious, and no lack of wisdom, no matter where you start, you can follow your own the chosen path boarded the pinnacle of his career.   However, there is opportunity, and will have responsibility.Today the company is not how to control employees’ career development; in fact, knowledge workers must become their own CEO.You should open up the company in their own world, to know when to change the path of development, and may last up to 2050 career continuous efforts, tangible results.   To do these things, you must first have a deep understanding of their own – not only aware of their strengths and weaknesses, but also know how to learn new knowledge and to work with others, and also to understand what their values are, themselves can What made the greatest contribution.   Because only when all work is focused from their own strengths, you can really do it the right way.   Great men in history – Napoleon, Leonardo da Vinci, Mozart – is very good at self-management.This is in large part a cause of great men is their.However, they belong to a rare genius, not only has talent is different from ordinary people, and born to manage their own, and thus it is different from ordinary people’s achievements.   And most of us, even those who are still a bit of flair, have had to master the skills of self-management by learning.   We must learn to self-development, we must know what kind of put himself in position to make the greatest contribution, but also must maintain a high degree of vigilance and investment in 50-year career.   1 is what my strengths is my strength?   Most people think they know what they are good at.   In fact, more often, people only know what they are not good – even at this point, it is often unclear understanding.   However, a person to make a difference, can only rely on play to their strengths, and if not very good at doing their job is not to achieve something, not to mention those who simply can not do their own thing.   People used there is no need to understand their own strengths, because a person’s birth will determine the status of his life and career: When the farmer’s son will be farmers, artisans and other craftsmen daughter will marry another.But now people have choices.We need confidant director, belongs to friend.   To discover their own strengths, the only way is to back analysis (analysis of feedback).Whenever important decisions or take significant action, you can pre-record their expected results.9-12 months later, then actual results compared with their expectations.   I am using this method some 15-20 years, and each time have a windfall.   For example, feedback analysis made me see that I am professional and technical personnel, whether engineers, accountants or market researchers, are likely to go up from intuition to understand them.This makes me surprise.It also made me see that I did not actually what resonate with those covered a wide range of generalist.   Feedback analysis is not anything new.As early as the 14th century, this approach by one that would have forever obscure German theologian invention, about 150 years after the French theologian John Calvin and Spanish theologian St. Ignatius were used.   They regard the practice of this method for its adherents.In fact, feedback analysis to make their followers to develop an always pay attention to the actual performance and results of habit, this is how they founded the sect – Calvinist Church and the Jesuits – can dominate the reasons for Europe for 30 years.   As long as we persevere in using this simple method, they can in a short period of time (probably two or three years), discover their strengths – which is what you need to know the most important thing.After using this method, you will be able to know that they are doing (or not doing) what things make your strengths not play.   At the same time, you will see yourself in what capacity is not particularly strong.Finally, you will also learn that they are completely not good in what ways, we can not make achievements to.   According to Revelation feedback analysis, you need to take action on several fronts.   The first and most important thing is to focus on your strengths, put itself in those places can play to their strengths of.   Secondly, to strengthen your strengths.   Feedback analysis will quickly show that you need to improve your skills or learn new skills in what areas.It will also show you the gap in knowledge – these gaps can usually make up.Mathematicians are born, but everyone can learn trigonometry.   Third, find any prejudice and ignorance due Shicaiaowu caused, and to overcome them.   There are too many people, especially those specializing in surgery industry, often dismissive of knowledge in other fields, or that clever mind can replace knowledge.For example, many first-class engineers met people-related things on the helpless, they also proud of – because they feel that, for clarity of mind for the engineers, the people are too chaotic.In sharp contrast, human resource professionals often they even basic knowledge of accounting or quantitative analysis are ignorant and proud.However, if people of such ignorance still complacent, then it is tantamount to self-destruction.In fact, to make their strengths into full play, you should try to learn new skills, learn new knowledge.   It’s equally important – correct your bad habits.   The so-called bad habits, refers to those things that will affect your job performance and job performance.This habit can be quickly reflected in the feedback.   For example, a planner may find yourself a wonderful plans to eventually come to nothing, because he did not plan to carry out in the end.Like those talented people, he also believes that good ideas can move mountains.But the real bulldozers move mountains, but the idea is to guide the direction of the bulldozer, let it know where to dig soil.The planning staff must be aware not plan to do a good job and you’re done, then we have to find people implementation plan, and explain their plans before to be put into action to make timely adjustments and modifications, and finally to decide when to suspend plans.   At the same time, it will reflect back what the problem is caused by the lack of courtesy.Courtesy is the lubricant of an organization.Two friction contact with each other when the moving object is a natural law, not only is such inanimate objects, humans too.   Polite, in fact, very simple, nothing more than to say please and thank you, remembering names, or other family members greet such a trivial matter, but is this insignificant details, so that two people can get along with each other between whether they Is there a good impression.Many smart people, especially intelligent young man, without realizing it.If the feedback analysis shows that as long as an encounter someone needs the cooperation of others to do it repeatedly failed, then it may mean that person’s behavior is not decent – that is, the lack of courtesy.   The expected and actual results are compared, they will find what they can not do.   Each of us has many know nothing about, there is no talent areas, even in those areas that we are not up to the level of mediocrity.People, especially knowledge workers, we should not try to complete the work and tasks in these areas.They should be used sparingly to waste energy on those areas not competent, because from incompetence to mediocrity than to pay a lot more effort from first-class people need to Excellence.   2 My work is like how to perform?Surprisingly, few people know how to do things is usually made to.   In fact, most of us do not even know that different people have different ways of working and performance.Many people are not accustomed to the way they work, which of course it is easy to cause inaction.   For knowledge workers, my work is like?What could be more than my strengths?This problem is more important.   Like the strengths of the same person, a person’s work is unique.This is determined by personality.Whether personality is genetically determined, or nurture, it is certainly long before a person entering the job market is formed.Just as what a person is good at, what is not good given, like a person’s work has been largely fixed, it can be adjusted slightly, but not completely changed – of course, will not easily change.   And just as people do their best at work is easy to make achievements, they take what they do best if the work is also easy achievements.   Usually, a few common personality traits will determine a person’s work.   I belong to the type of reader or listener type?   First, you have to figure out that you are a reader type (used to read information) or listener type (used to listen to information) people.   Most people do not even know the reader type and type of listener said, and few readers both type listener type is.You know what type of person they belong less.However, there are some examples of such ignorance may cause much harm.   When Dwight Eisenhower as Supreme Allied Commander Europe, has been the darling of the news media.His correspondent conference is famous for its unique style – no matter what the question raised by reporters, General Eisenhower are comfortably fluent.Whether briefings, or to explain the policy, he can use twenty-three concise words to say clearly.   Ten years later, Eisenhower became president, with a group of reporters who have had him on a pedestal, then openly despise him.They complain that he never directly answer questions, but endlessly babbling about the other things.They always laughed at him when incoherent answer questions, not grammatical, spoil Standard English.   Eisenhower obviously do not know that they belong to the reader type, rather than the listener type.When he served as Supreme Allied Commander in Europe, his aides sought to ensure that every issue raised by the media submitted in writing at least half an hour before the conference began reporters.In this way, Eisenhower completely mastered the questions raised by reporters.When he became president, his two predecessors both type listener – Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman.Both the president knew that he was the type of listener, and likes to speak their minds reporters conference held.Eisenhower thought he might have to do two predecessors did something.However, he was not even the reporters are asking in what had clearly never heard of.Moreover, Eisenhower was not an extreme example.   A few years later, Lyndon Johnson put his presidency to screw up, it is because he does not know what type of person the listener is largely.His predecessor, John F. Kennedy was a reader type of person, he identified a number of excellent pen when his assistant, asking them to be sure to give him each time before writing to inform discussions in person.   Johnson left these people, they will continue to write to inform.But he apparently could not see what they write do not understand.However, when former Senator Johnson has been extraordinary performance, because members must first listener type.   Few listeners type of person can become qualified readers through the efforts of type – whether active or passive efforts, and vice versa.Thus, the listener trying to type into the reader type of people will suffer the fate of Lyndon Johnson, while trying to type into the reader type of listener who will suffer the fate of Dwight Eisenhower.They can not use their talents or achievements.   3 How do I learn how to learn?To understand a person’s work, the second point is the need to understand how he is learning.Many first-class pen is not a good student – Winston Churchill is an example.In their memory, the school is often full of torment.   However, they have this memory of classmates rarely.They may not be any fun at school, for them to go to school the greatest pain is boring.An explanation of the problem is that people generally do not rely on written good listening and learning to read, and by writing to learn, it has become a law.School let them learn in this way, so their performance is always bad.   All schools follow this educational ideas: there is only one correct way to learn, and everyone had to comply.However, learning with others is not the same students who were forced by the school to teach the way to learn is hell.   In fact, learning about different six-seven ways.   People like Churchill by writing to learn.Others with detailed notes to learn.For example, Beethoven left many essays cheat sheet, but he said that in fact never see these essays composing his cheat sheet.   When asked why he should write it down, he reportedly replied: If I do not write it down immediately, I will soon be forgotten.If I write them on little book, I will never forget, do not need another look.Some people in the hard work of learning.Others learn by listening to their own speech.   I belong to the reader or listener type type?How do I learn?This is the first thing you have to ask yourself the question.   However, the light of these issues is clearly not enough.To make self-management, you need to ask the question: Can I please have cooperation with others?Still prefer single-handedly?If you do have the ability to cooperate with others, you have to ask this question: I have worked with others in the kind of relationship?   Some people best suited when subordinates.   American hero General George Patton during World War II is a good example.Barton is a US senior generals.However, when someone suggested that he served as an independent commander, US Army Chief of Staff, and perhaps the most successful horses in American history, General George Marshall said: Barton is created by the US Army’s best men, however, he would become the most poor commander.   Some people work best as a team member.Others work best alone.Some people especially when the coach and mentor talented, others failed to do tutor.   Another key question is, how can I achieve results – as a decision maker or as an adviser?   Many people behave when the consultant will do very well, but can not bear the burden and stress of decision-making.On the contrary, there are many consultants who need to force them to think, then they can make a decision, and then quickly, confidently and boldly carry out the decisions.   By the way, a number two man organization often fails when promoted to number one position, it is precisely for this reason.Highest position requires a decision maker, and a strong decision makers often put their trust people in the number two position, when his advisers.   Consultant at number two position is often very good, but the change to the number one position, he would die.Although he knows what decisions should be made, but can not really accept the responsibility to make decisions.   Other self-help to understand important issues include: I am outstanding performance under pressure, or adapt one kind of step by step, predictable working environment?I was in a big company or a small company in the performance of the best?   In a variety of work environments are very few good people.More than once I saw some people very successful in large companies, small companies to change the very smooth.The reverse is also true.   The following conclusion is worth repeatedly emphasized: Do not try to change yourself, because then you are unlikely to succeed.However, you should strive to improve the way you work.In addition, you can not do or do not do so that we can work.   ”DONOT try to change yourself, you are unlikely to succeed.Efforts to improve the implementation of wayyou.”4 What are my values are my values?To be able to self-management, you have to ask the final question is: What are my values?This is not a related ethical issues.Ethics are the same for everyone.To test a person’s moral, it is simple.I call it the mirror test.   Early 20th century, the German ambassador to Britain was in all the major powers in London, the most respected diplomat.Apparently, he was destined to bear the responsibility, even though the country’s prime minister inappropriate, at least when the Minister of Foreign Affairs.   However, in 1906, he suddenly resigned, unwilling to diplomatic missions hosted a dinner for the King Edward VII held.The king is a notorious goat, and made it clear that he wanted to attend what kind of dinner.According to reports, the German ambassador said: I do not want to shave in the morning you see a pimp in the mirror.   This is the mirror test.   We respect the ethics from the requirements you ask yourself: I am every morning in the mirror to see what kind of person?   In an organization or situation is ethical behavior in another organization or another situation is ethical.However, only part of the moral value system – especially for an organization’s value system is.   If an organization’s value system is not acceptable for themselves or incompatible with their values, people are greatly depressed, low work efficiency.   A person’s work and his forte little conflict, on the contrary, both can produce complementary.However, a person’s values sometimes conflict with his strengths.A person can be said to do well or even very good, very successful thing – may not coincide with its value system.In this case, the work done by this man does not seem worthy contribution lifetime of effort (no need to even contribute too much energy).   If you can, please allow me to insert a personal story.Years ago, I have had to choose between their own values and very successful work.The mid-1930s, I was a young man, to do investment banking in London, worked very well.This work obviously can play my strengths.   However, I do not consider myself as the asset manager is to contribute.I realize that I have concentrated on the study of human.I think, life is busy making money, the most richest dead in the cemetery does not make sense.   I had no money and no job prospects.Although at the time of the Great Depression continues, I quit my job.This is the right choice.In other words, values are and should be the ultimate litmus test.   5 where I belong, where I belong?Very few people knew where they belong.   For example, mathematicians, musicians and cooks, usually four or five at the time knew she would become a mathematician, musician and chef.Physicists usually in their teens or even earlier, when he decided his career.   However, most people, especially the very talented people, at least over twenty-five-year-old did not know where they belong to the body.   However, this time, they should know the answer to three questions above are talking about: What are my strengths?My work is like?What are my values?Then, they can and should decide where to put the effort.   Or, they should be able to decide themselves where not belong.   Already know themselves so that we are in a big company, you should learn to refuse to serve in a large company.People already know they are not suitable as decision-makers, decision-making should learn to refuse to do work.Patton (he probably never know it) should have refused to learn as commander in chief of the independent.   It is also important to know the answers to these three questions, but also makes a person a chance to be able to readily accept an invitation or a task.   Yes, I will do it.However, I will follow my own characteristics, to take such a way to do it, for such organizational arrangements to deal with them so that the relationship involved.This is the result I should be made within this time frame, because that’s what I.   Successful careers are not pre-planned, but a matter of course when people know their strengths, and values after work, ready to seize opportunities.Know where they belong, make a diligent, but otherwise mediocre ability of ordinary people to become great workers.   6 What should I do to promote my contribution?Looking at the history of human development, the vast majority of people will never need to ask the question: What should I make a contribution?What contribution because they are told that by someone else, they are determined by the task or the job itself (such as farmers or craftsmen task), or determined by the owner (such as maid of tasks).   Most of the previous people in a subordinate position, others told them what to do, what to do, which is taken for granted.Even to the 1950s and 1960s, when the emergence of knowledge workers (the so-called organizer, organizer) also expect the company’s personnel department for them to do career planning.   Subsequently, the end of the 1960s, no one would want others to arrange their own career the.Young men and women began asking this question: What do I want to do?The answer is that they have heard of it you own way.   However, as such wrong answer with organizations who take orders from the company’s practices.Those who believe in their own way can contribute to achieve the ambition, the success of people, even in the three general can not do any thing.   Nevertheless, we can not go back and let someone else told, arrange what to do.For knowledge workers, they also have to ask a question had never been asked before: What should be my contribution?   To answer this question, they must consider three different factors: What are the requirements of the current situation is?    Given my strengths, my work and my values, how can I make the greatest contribution to the tasks to be done?    Finally, you must obtain what results can have a major impact?    The hospital president appointed a new look at the experience.This is a prestigious major hospitals, 30 years has been known to rely on the smooth operation of the.The new president decided to contribute their supposed to do after taking office: an important field hospital set up within two years of service excellence standards.   He decided to focus on the emergency room, the hospital’s emergency room because the place is relatively large, the subject of attention, but disorder.He decided that every patient to the emergency room to be hosted by a qualified nurse within 60 seconds.Within a year, the hospital’s emergency room became a model for all hospitals in the United States, and after two years, the face of the whole hospital’s new look.   As this case shows, take the long view is unlikely too far – not even particularly effective.In general, the time span of a plan if more than 18 months, it is difficult to achieve a clear and specific.So the question in most cases we should be asking is: can I get the results would bear fruit in the next year and a half in what areas?How to achieve such results?We must weigh several aspects of answering this question.   First, these results should be more difficult to achieve.   - said with the current a buzzword, is to have tension (stretching).However, these results should also be the ability to reach the.Setting a goal can not be achieved or can only be achieved in the case of extremely unlikely, can not be called ambitious, it is simply stupid.   Second, these results should be meaningful, to be able to have an impact.   Finally, the results should be visible, if possible, should also be able to measure.   After determining the result to be achieved, then they can formulate a course of action: what to do, where to start, how to start, what is the objective, how long to complete.   Seven pairs of human relationships except for a few great artists, scientists and athletes, very few people are on their own single-handedly responsible for Responsibility and get results.   Whether members of the organization or individual professionals, most people have to cooperate with others, and is effective cooperation.   To achieve self-management, you need to take responsibility for their own relationships.It consists of two parts.    The first is to accept others and the fact that individuals like you.    They will insist to show their personality as a human being.That is to say, they have their own strengths, their own way of doing things and their own values.Therefore, to effective, you must know the strengths of those who work, work and values.   The reason it sounds makes it easy to understand, but few people will actually pay attention to.A man accustomed to writing the report is a typical example – he was training at the time of the first job from the habit of writing the report, because his boss is a reader-type person, but even if the next boss is a listener type, this people will continue to read, it is certainly not the result of any report.   So the boss would certainly think that the staff stupid, incompetent, lazy, so that we can certainly work.However, if the employee previously studied the new boss of the situation, and analyzed the work of the boss, this situation could have been avoided.   Boss is neither a title on the organization chart, nor is it a function.They have personality, they have the right to own the most handy way to work.They work with people who have the responsibility to observe them, learn about their work, and make the appropriate self-adjustment, to adapt to the boss of the most effective ways of working.   In fact, it is the management of the secret boss.   This method is applicable to all who work with you.Everyone has his own way of doing things, also have the right to work in their own way, rather than to work according to your approach.Importantly, they can make a difference and what kind of values they hold.   As for work, people do not have.The first is to understand the secret to increase the effectiveness of cooperation with you and you have to rely on people to take advantage of their strengths, work and values.Working relationships should both work-based, but also people-based.    The second part of interpersonal communication is the responsibility of responsibility.    When I or someone else to start a consulting organization to do, the first thing we hear are related to personality conflicts.Most of all because of the conflict: people do not know what others are doing, how they are taken to work, focus on what kind of contribution to make and how to get the desired results.The reason these people do not understand the situation, they do not ask, do not know the results will.   This practice not ask out of the situation, not so much a reflection of human folly, it is more history dictates.In the past, these people do not need to tell anyone.For example, in the medieval city, every person engaged in a business district of the same.In the countryside, just a thaw land, everyone in the valley began planting the same crop.Even if a few people do, and we do not, they also work alone, there is no need to tell anyone what they were doing.   Now, most people assume the different tasks and responsibilities of people to work.Vice president of marketing may be the sales came to know everything about sales, however, for he had never done before, such as pricing, advertising, packaging, etc., know nothing about it.So, those who are doing these jobs must ensure that the vice president of marketing know what they are trying to do is, why they do it, how will they do it and expect to achieve any result.   If the vice president of marketing do not know how these high-level knowledge-based professionals doing, the latter mainly in the wrong body, but not in their own.Conversely, vice president of marketing responsibility is to ensure that all his colleagues knew what about the marketing of this work: what his goal is, how he works, and he for himself and each of his colleagues What to expect.   Even though some people understand the importance of interpersonal relationships take responsibility for, their colleagues and exchange are often not enough.They always have concerns, they fear that other people see themselves as a presumptuous, foolish, inquisitive people.They are wrong.   Because we see that whenever someone to find his colleagues say that this is what I was good work.This is my way of doing things.This is my values.This is the result of contributions made and I plan to be made, so that people will get the answer: It’s so helpful, why are you not you tell me?   If a person continues to ask: contribution So what about your strengths, your work, your values and what you plan to make, I need to know what?He will also get a similar answer – according to my experience, without exception.   In fact, knowledge workers should work with them to everyone, whether subordinates, superiors, colleagues or team members, have issued such a question.Moreover, each raised such issues will get this answer: Thank you ask me.But, Why did not you ask me?   The organization is no longer built on the basis of the power, but on the basis of trust.Mutual trust between people, does not necessarily mean they like each other each other, but rather to understand each other.Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to be responsible for their relationships.   This is an obligation.Whether a person is a member of the company, or the company’s consultants, suppliers or distributors, he needs to take this responsibility for all of his co-workers.The so-called co-workers, refers to the work he relies colleagues and his colleagues rely.   8 management after half of your life when the majority of the work is manual labor, you do not have to worry about the second half for their later life.As long as you continue to engage you have been doing the job on the line.If you’re lucky enough to be able to hold down the factory or railway 40 years of hard work, you can happily spend the rest of his life, did not need dry.   Now, however, most of the work is knowledge work and knowledge workers did after 40 years, still active aging, they’re just a little tired.   We hear a lot about midlife crisis managers talk, tired of the word which frequently appears.At the age of 45, most manager’s career reached its peak, they know it.After 20 years doing exactly the same job, they have handy.   But they not learn new things, and no new contributions, lack of challenge from work, and therefore there can be no satisfaction.However, in front of them, as well as 20-25 year professional way to go.That is why the manager after performing self-management, more and more reasons to start a second career development of.   There are three ways to develop a second career.    The first is fully involved in the new work.    This is often just from one tissue to another tissue.For example, an accountant division of a large company to become chief financial officer of a medium-sized hospital.   But there are more and more people into a completely different career.For example, the manager of the company at the age of 45 to enter the Cabinet; or after work in middle management leaving the company for 20 years, training to law school and become a lawyer in a small town.   There are many people with limited success achieved in the first job, the second job then diverted.Such people have a lot of skills, they also know how to work.Moreover, they need a community – because the kids have grown up solo, leaving a vacancy.They also need income.But most importantly, they need to challenge.    To prepare for later life The second way is to develop a parallel career.    Many people’s first career was very successful, they will continue to engage in original work, or full-time or part-time, or even just as a consultant.But in addition, they will create a parallel job, usually a non-profit organization, occupied 10 hours a week..   For example, they may take over the management of the church, or served as chairman of the local Girl Scout Advisory Board.They may also manage battered women’s shelter, the local public library as children’s librarian, or serve on school boards, etc..    The last method is social entrepreneurship.    Social entrepreneurs who are usually the first highly successful career.They love their work, but this work is no longer challenging for them.In many cases, although they continue doing their jobs, but less and less time spent in this position.They also created another cause, usually a non-profit activity.   For example, my friend Bob Buford founded a very successful television company, and now he still runs.At the same time, he also created a non-profit organization with the cooperation of the Protestant Church, also has been very successful.Now he has created an organization dedicated to guide the social entrepreneurs in the business of existing business, how to manage their own non-profit organization founded by another.   After managing their own half of the people may always be a minority.Most people might thousand in the end, counting the years from year to year in the past, until retirement.However, it is these few people, these long working life to be seen as opportunities for men and women themselves and society, will become a leader and model.   After half a prerequisite for good management: You have to begin to take action long before you enter the half.   30 years ago when it was first recognized that working life is rapidly extended time, many observers (including myself) believe that retirees will increasingly become a volunteer non-profit organizations.However, this did not happen.One can not begin to volunteer before the age of 40, he will not do it after the age of 60 volunteers.   Similarly, all the social entrepreneurs I know, long before they are old career peaked began to engage in their second career.   Development of the second interest (and is developing as early as possible) there is a reason: no one can expect a very long time not suffered a serious setback in life or work.   There are a very competent engineer at the age of 45 missed the chance of promotion.Another very competent ordinary college professor recognized, even if she is fully qualified as a professor, she will never age of 42 get a professorship at the university’s name all.Another is that there is a tragedy in the family life: marriage breakdown or lost children.   At such moments, the second interest – not just a hobby – may play an important role in.For example, the engineer now knows he was not very successful at work.However, in activities outside the company, such as the church is responsible for the management of funds, he was successful.A person may broken families, but he found that there is community interest in the family’s activities in the second.   In a society where respect for success, with a variety of options become more and more important.   From a historical point of view, but did not say a success.Most people just stick to the desired place.Liquidity is only downward flow of.However, in the knowledge society, we expect everyone to be successful.This is clearly impossible.   For many people, to avoid defeat on the line.But where there is success, there will be failures.Therefore, there is one that allows people to make contributions to exert influence or become an area of great men, it is very important not only for the individual, the individual’s family are equally important.This means that people need to be able to find an opportunity to become leaders, respected, successful second field – probably second career, it could be a parallel career or social entrepreneurship.   Self-management challenges faced seem obvious, even very basic, the answers may not be self-evident, even almost childish.However, self-management needs of individuals, especially knowledge workers, make’ve never done before.   In fact, self-management needs of every knowledge worker in thought and action have become their own CEO.   Further point of view, such a change – everything from manual workers to listen to other people commanded to have knowledge worker self-management – also makes the social structure has undergone profound changes.The history of every society, even the most individualistic society, think two things for granted (even if only subconsciously): first, the organization live longer than employees; Second, most people never move places.   Today, the opposite is true.Life of knowledge workers over the life of the organization, and they come and go.So, people need self-management set off a revolution in human affairs.   Recent hot text recommended: 1.The subway advertising Ali, pierced the hearts of countless entrepreneurs 2.Tencent released 95 reports heavy: the next five years, this is the trend of China’s Internet!(Full version) 3.Ali’s first venture documentary came: to see cry all entrepreneurs!   4.One pair of Tsinghua classmates: a 35-year-old to come up with 35 billion market capitalization, announced that the United States market; but a prisoner!   5.Big data tells you, in the end how hard Chinese woman 6.Zhang Xiaolong’s father micro letter: micro-channel 500 billion valuation of the year sold almost 150,000 Lei Jun